placed in some advantageous position, but in Europe they "just grew/' and seldom are near a sufficient water supply, as a good-sized river, according to foreign standards, carries about enough water to cool two or three blast furnaces, and condensers are a luxury. This disadvantage is overcome by the use of central condensing plants, which are much more common than with us, and by cooling towers. The cooling is not enough to give a good vacuum, and the clouds of vapor are a nuisance in summer and winter. Many plants use the condensed water to return to the boilers and have elaborate settling and skimming tanks to separate the oil, but much remains to be done to give clean water.
The statistics for 1903 show 33 blast furnaces in operation, malting 753,000 tons of iron, an average of 62 tons per day per furnace. There were two acid Bessemer converters of 8 tons capacity, and 7 basic vessels of 10 tons. There were 30 basic open-hearth furnaces, averaging 16 tons, in the larger steel works, and a few others in steel-casting plants. There are no acid open-hearth furnaces in the district. Silesia is a large producer of wrought-iron, there being 287 puddle furnaces in operation, or 30 per cent, of the total for Germany,
In Table XXIV-H is a list of the steel works and blast furnaces.
SEO. XX.IVe.--T/ie Soar:
The Saar district is 40 miles square, with an underlying bed of coal. It includes Saarbrucken and western Bavaria. The coal is not of the best and gives a poor coke, which would hardly be used in America, but that it can be used is proven by the steel works at Volklingen and Burbach. There are four plants in the valley, and three of them make most of their pig-iron at the steel works, but these three, and the fourth also, operate furnaces in Lothringen or Luxemburg and bring the pig to the Saar. The coal varies, and at one works which I visited it ran from 22 to 30 per cent, of ash, and in another from 18 to 20 per cent In both places it was crushed and washed and the ash reduced to 10 per cent., giving a coke with 12 to 14 per cent. The coal is rammed with an electric rammer before charging, compressing the mass so that the coke is more dense and the amount used for smelting is decreased 10 per cent. The yield of coke is 70 per cent, of the weight of dry coal. Scarcely any of this coke is carried outside the valley of the Saar, but the local blast furnaces use it exclusively.